Infographic from the “ex-blog” of Rio Mayor Cesar “Chairman” Maia shows reported sounds of gunfire in the city. The Red Zone is the Western District, which Globo now reports — it’s definitive! though other news organizations beat the Silver Venus to the story by just about a year — is the hog heaven of the militia protection rackets. (Counterintuitively, by the way, the Green Zone is not a paradise on earth of peace and tranquillity, but rather an area of less frequent reports of gunfire.) See also TV Globo: “Where Do The Militias Operate?” and “Vigilantes Impose Peace in Rio Slums.” The Associated Press had reported that paramilitary protection rackets were proving to be a successful ad hoc strategy against criminal violence. The pattern illustrated here suggests otherwise.
“The execution of Felix Tostes has once and for while destroyed the theory that militias bring peace to communities,” said Rio de Janeiro state public security secretary Beltrame.
The motive of the crime is allegedly that Félix wanted to run for city council in 2008, which is said to have displeased Nadinho, who planned to run for reelection.
“To get into those areas, you had to be accompanied by a resident with great prestige, and, one supposes, the tacit consent of “The Man.” A good part of the shantytowns, today, have candidates, chosen by The Traffic who can move freely through the area. In general, it is a closed slate of candidates, very exclusive. They say there is a deal involving quid pro quo, with police protection and even money. The militias do the same thing. In the last campaign, I went to a community near Itanhangá, at the invitation of a resident, who received me with great embarrassment: The meeting was cancelled. The candidates for that community were already decided upon.” –Federal deputy Chico Alencar to O Globo, August 2007
Vereador Nadinho é indiciado pela polícia como mandante do assassinato de chefe de milícia em Rio das Pedras: O Globo reported on November 14 that the police have charged city alderman Nadinho (DEM-PFL) with ordering the assassination of former police inspector Félix Tostes earlier this year.
- Rio: “Did Batman Put the Contract Out on Police Inspector Tostes?”
- In Memoriam, Inspector Tostes
- Rio: Possible Perps Paraded in Carnival of Parapolitics!
- Rio Militias: Hybrid Governance Solution to State Failure Props Up Informal Real Estate Market
Tostes was a top aide to the former chief of the state judicial police, and allegedly also in business with another former police chief was elected to the State Assembly in 2006. A Mr. Lins.
In business putting the fix in for gambling mafias, in exchange for an equity stake in that business. Tostes was alleged to have controlled a bingo in Rio das Pedras, for example, as well as bottled cooking gas, alt.transport, and other black-market businesses.
There are intimations of a similar phenomenon, of long date — mobbed-up police running paramilitary groups that put their own candidates into office on the city and state legislature; “parapolitics,” to coin a phrase — in São Paulo:
It is a phenomenon with ample historical precedents elsewhere in Brazil:
- Espirito Santo, Brazil: “The Zombie Corpse of the Scuderie Le Cocq”
- Brazil: “Death Squadder Who Whacked Newspaper Publisher Recaptured”
RIO – O vereador Josinaldo Francisco da Cruz, o Nadinho de Rio das Pedras (DEM), foi indiciado pela Polícia Civil como mandante do assassinato do policial civil Félix dos Santos Tostes, em 22 de fevereiro deste ano, no Recreio dos Bandeirantes. Outras quatro pessoas são apontadas como executoras do crime, de acordo com um inquérito da Delegacia de Homicídios da Zona Oeste (DH-Oeste).
City alderman Josinaldo Francisco da Cruz, known as “Nadinho of Rio das Pedras” (DEM), was charged by the state judicial police with having ordered the assassination of police inspector Félix dos Santos Tostes on February 22 of this year, in Recreio dos Bandeirantes. Another four persons are charged with carrying out the crime, according to an investigation by the Homicide Division of the Western Zone.
Bat macumba oba: The Batman shield marks protected homes and businesses in Rio’s Wastern District — and the campaign advertising of two local candidates.
O documento será entregue, nesta quarta-feira, às promotoras Marcia Velasco e Christiane Monnerat, da 7ª Promotoria de Investigação Penal (PIP). O Ministério Público pedirá à Justiça a prisão dos suspeitos caso concorde com o desfecho das investigações da polícia.
The document will handed over on Wednesday (November 14) to prosecutors Velasco and Monnerat. The Public Ministry will ask the court to issue an order for the arrest of the suspects in the case in accordance with police findings.
Além de Nadinho, foram indiciados o ex-PM Ricardo Teixeira Cruz, o Batman, expulso da Polícia Militar em 1992; o ex-PM José Carlos da Silva, exonerado da corporação em 1999; o cabo PM Wellington Vaz de Oliveira, lotado no 27º BPM (Santa Cruz); e o policial civil André Luiz da Silva Malvan, do Instituto de Identificação Félix Pacheco (IFP). André é genro do vereador Jerônimo Guimarães Filho, o Jerominho (PMDB), cujo reduto eleitoral fica na Zona Oeste, assim como o de Nadinho.
Besides Nadinho, police charged former military police trooper Ricardo “Batman” Teixeira Cruz, expelled from the PM in 1992; former PM José Carlos da Silva, expelled in 1999; PM corporal Wellington Vaz de Oliveira, currrently assigned to the 27th BPM in Santa Cruz; and state judicial policeman André Luiz da Silva Malvan of the Pachecho Institute, the state identification laboratory. André is the son-in-law of alderman Jerônimo “Jerominho” Guimarães Filho of the PMDB, whose district lies in the Western Zone, as does Nadinho’s.
Quatro já detidos
Four already detained.
Com exceção de Nadinho, todos os indiciados já estão presos. Eles também são acusados de envolvimento no atentado ao PM Francisco César Silva Oliveira, do 25º BPM (Cabo Frio), ocorrido em 27 de agosto em São Pedro d’Aldeia, na Região dos Lagos. Os dois ex-PMs estão detidos no Presídio de Água Santa; o PM, no Batalhão Especial Prisional; e o policial civil, na Polinter do Grajaú.
With the exception of Nadinho, all those charged have already been arrested. They are also charged with the attempted murder of PM Francisco César Silva Oliveira, of the 25th BPM, on August 27 in São Pedro d’Aldeia, in the dos Lagos area. The former PMs are being held in the Água Santa prison, the active-duty PM at the Special Prison Battalion and the state policeman at Polinter in Grajaú.
Segundo as investigações da DH-Oeste, Félix – que era suspeito de chefiar a milícia que atua na Favela de Rio das Pedras, em Jacarepaguá – teria sido assassinado após se desentender com Nadinho, de quem era amigo de longa data. O motivo do crime seria a decisão de Félix de se candidatar a vereador nas eleições de 2008, o que teria desagradado a Nadinho, que planeja se reeleger.
According to the Homicide Division, Félix — who was suspected of heading the militia that operated in the Rio das Pedras shantytown in Jacarepaguá — was murdered after a falling out with Nadinho, a long-time friend. The motive of the crime is allegedly that Félix wanted to run for city council in 2008, which is said to have displeased Nadinho, who planned to run for reelection.
Em 2004, Nadinho foi o nono vereador mais votado do Rio. Ex-presidente da Associação de Moradores de Rio das Pedras, ele obteve 13 mil dos 17 mil votos das seções eleitorais da favela.
In 2004, Nadinho was the ninth most highly voted alderman in Rio. Former president of the Residents’ Association of Rio das Pedras, he received 13,000 of the 17,000 votes in the precincts located in the shantytown.
Parapolitics. What else would you call this dynamic?
The PSDB co-chair of the probe into grilagem in the Zona Oeste — illegal settlement and development of public property — is also suspected of militia ties.
To what extent is the DEM-PSDB alliance in Rio de Janeiro, and its competition with other parties, based on a voto de cabresto enforced by armed criminal groups that are bankrolled by the black market, staffed by moonlighting police, and engaged in “innovative public-private partnerships” of this kind? All justified by the theory of “state failure” and the folkloric jeitinho?
The question now, that is, is how extensive this dynamic is. O Globo reporters have sought to shed some light on the issue recently: